Open Research Online: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. 2021-02-25T08:11:59Z EPrints http://www.hksacx.icu/images/homepage.jpg http://www.hksacx.icu/ 2019-03-05T10:50:44Z 2019-08-06T08:54:56Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/59477 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/59477 2019-03-05T10:50:44Z British Police in Postwar Vienna: Chasing the Real Harry Lime Clive Emsley ce3232 2018-06-20T15:37:11Z 2021-01-03T14:34:31Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/55338 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/55338 2018-06-20T15:37:11Z ‘Du concept à l’institution: Les spécifités du mot “police” en langue anglaise’ The word ‘police’ has its origins in the languages of Classical Greece and Rome. Through to the Enlightenment it had a broad conceptual meaning relating to the general well-being of a city or wider territory. The early historians of the English institution known as the police seem to have had little or no awareness of this early usage. Most of them assumed that eighteenth-century England was suffering from a serious rise in crime and disorder and that the creation of the Metropolitan Police in 1829 constituted a solution to the increasing problems.
Maintaining throughout comparisons and contrasts with continental Europe, this essay explores the responsibility for the maintenance of order and the enforcement of law in England from the late medieval period to the development of the police institution. Drawing on recent research it addresses English attitudes to civic duty in the realms of policing, English perceptions of events regarding police developments in Europe and pre-police organisations before 1829.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2018-06-14T14:20:08Z 2019-08-06T08:52:38Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/55336 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/55336 2018-06-14T14:20:08Z A Police Officer and a Gentleman: A.F. 'Michael' Wilcox 'Michael’ Wilcox is not well-known but he had a distinguished career in the police service, starting as a constable in the City of Bristol Police and ending as the Chief Constable of Hertfordshire. The death of his father meant that he left school early, but his shortened education did not stop him applying to Lord Trenchard’s new Police College established in Hendon in 1934 His success in the entrance exam required him to transfer to the Metropolitan Police. In 1943, by then an Inspector, he volunteered for the Civil Affairs unit of the Allied Armies. He landed at Salerno and set about ‘liberating’ towns in southern Italy. He was rapidly promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and found himself doing the lion’s share of the work in attempting to reorganise the Italian Police. In the immediate aftermath of the war, he played a key role in the policing of occupied Vienna. On demobilisation he became the deputy Chief Constable of Buckinghamshire and then, after six months, the Chief Constable of Hertfordshire. He served in Herts for the next 22 years. Several of his friends and fellow graduates from Hendon moved on to senior posts in the Metropolitan Police and the Inspectorate of Constabulary. Wilcox had written to his wife during his Army service saying that being a Chief Constable was his ambition as it would allow him to look after her and their children. On retirement he enjoyed a link with the new Criminology Institute at Cambridge publishing a small book on prosecution which is still well regarded. He also took on a variety of temporary posts for the Home Office.
Wilcox was a man who never pushed himself forward; family was as important to him as the job. Nevertheless, he rose through the ranks by demonstrating his ability and a strong commitment to his role. As Chief Constable he appears to have been popular and respected by those who served under him; while he, in turn, made their welfare a key consideration.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2017-12-21T13:01:08Z 2019-08-06T08:51:32Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/52736 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/52736 2017-12-21T13:01:08Z Crime and Policing in Wartime War affects combatant societies, and societies trampled over by warring armies and smashed by their munitions, in a variety of ways. This chapter draws out some of these effects with respect to crime and criminal offending in European societies since the mid-eighteenth century, and explores how that offending was investigated and suppressed. It focusses on three principal areas: first, the kinds of, and extent of offences committed by soldiers and sailors during war and its immediate aftermath; second, the ways in which the exigencies and pressures of, and the opportunities provided by war have prompted criminal activity among civilians; and third, the kinds of police that existed and that were specifically developed to deal with military offending. Clive Emsley ce3232 2017-12-21T12:24:57Z 2019-08-06T08:51:32Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/52739 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/52739 2017-12-21T12:24:57Z Exporting British Policing during the Second World War: Policing Soldiers and Civilians This book deals with the British civilian police officers who served in two distinct policing roles in the army during the Second World War. The first group created the detective division (SIB) of the Royal Military Police to investigate the thefts of military equipment from docks, stores and supply dumps. This was rather more dangerous overseas since the Mafia were involved in Italy and the Red Army in Germany and Austria – though the Soviet high command insisted that offenders be labelled as ‘persons in Red Army’ uniforms. The second half of the book looks at the role of police officers sent to restore civil society and law and order in the aftermath of allied liberation of Nazi and Fascist occupied territories, and eventually in the territories of the defeated enemies themselves. They did their best and ensured that people were fed, black markets at least restricted and that services were reconnected, but they were not particularly successful in the British government’s hope that they could turn Carabinieri, agenti and Schutzm?nner into traditional British Bobbies. Their role had largely been forgotten by the time of the recent Anglo-American involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq. Clive Emsley ce3232 2012-10-12T08:18:00Z 2020-12-27T12:39:05Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/34626 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/34626 2012-10-12T08:18:00Z Crucifying Tommy: punishment in the First World War The outrage at the execution of soldiers for cowardice during the First World War continues to this day. This article focusses on the less well-known Field Punishment Number 1 which generated considerable scandal during the war. The punishment, initially devised to replace flogging, appears to have been given additional refinements by individual units so that, by 1914 it resembled crucifixion with men being tied to wheels and sometimes left during bombardments. The article explores the effect of the press and popular outrage on the Army Council leading to the eventual decision to regularise the practice, removing the brutal refinements, and then abolish the punishment. Clive Emsley ce3232 2012-10-08T09:40:12Z 2019-08-06T08:40:34Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/34546 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/34546 2012-10-08T09:40:12Z Soldier, Sailor, Beggarman, Thief: Crime and the British Armed Services since 1914 This is the first attempt to assess the scale of offending by British service personnel during the twentieth century. The main focus of the book is on the two world wars but, given the concerns about the numbers of ex-service personnel in prison at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the book concludes with a brief discussion of the Gulf wars and Afghanistan. The main concerns are not war crimes, but the range of offending from murder to petty theft, from rape to fraud. The book strikes a balance between military history and criminal justice history and is based on primary source material ranging from official documentation to newspapers and personal recollections. Clive Emsley ce3232 2012-02-29T15:54:57Z 2019-08-06T08:39:56Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/33023 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/33023 2012-02-29T15:54:57Z Marketing the brand: exporting British police models 1829-1950 The International Police assistance Board (IPAB) was established in 2008 with the declared aim of marketing the internationally respected brand of UK Police. Yet there is no such entity as the UK Police. This article traces the history of exporting models of British policing from the creation of the Metropolitan Police in 1829 to the period immediately following the Second World War. It makes a critical assessment of the contrast between English and Irish models and a shift in policy following the defeat of the Axis powers. It also notes the problem of attempting to transplant an ethos that emerged in one country into the very different cultural persceptions of another. Clive Emsley ce3232 2012-02-29T14:58:22Z 2019-08-06T08:39:56Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/33025 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/33025 2012-02-29T14:58:22Z Theories and Origins of the Modern Police This volume is a made up of 19 of the major essays published in the English language on the theories surrounding and origins of modern bureaucratic policing. It includes a general introductory essay by the editor on the way the history of policing has developed and the current state of research. It is the first volume in a series of four for which Clive Emsley is the General Editor. 2012-01-11T10:40:52Z 2020-12-27T12:37:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/31109 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/31109 2012-01-11T10:40:52Z Bobbies Abroad The standing of Britain's police forces may be in decline at home, yet their insight into policing methods and practices are stil sought eagerly elsewhere, according to Clive Emsley and Georgina Sinclair. Clive Emsley ce3232 Georgina Sinclair gss76 2011-12-15T10:14:16Z 2019-08-06T08:38:16Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/30639 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/30639 2011-12-15T10:14:16Z Crime and Society in Twentieth-Century England This is the first serious attempt to explore the history of crime and criminal justice in twentieth-century England. It traces the broad pattern of criminal offending over the hundred year period that experienced unprecedented levels of upheaval and change including two world wars, the end of empire, significant shifts in gender relations and ethnic mix, and a decline in the power of the economy. The book assesses th chnges in attitudes towards crime as well as developments in policing, in the courts and penal sanctions. It explores the impact of gender equality and ethnic diversity on crime and criminal justice, and looks at the way in which, over the last third of the century, crime became increasingly central to political agendas. Clive Emsley ce3232 2011-06-06T08:55:23Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21724 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21724 2011-06-06T08:55:23Z The regulation of motor traffic in Britain Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-09-20T13:24:11Z 2019-08-06T08:33:21Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21680 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21680 2010-09-20T13:24:11Z The Great British Bobby: A History of British Policing from the 18th Century to the Present The name 'Bobby' comes from Sir Robert Peel who, as home secretary, oversaw the creation of the Metropolitan Police in 1829. In spite of his position as a national institution and his appeal as a solution to present-day concerns about law and order, the social history of the Bobby has rarely been explored. Yet his story (and since the beginning of the twentieth century it is also her story) is as exciting as that of his military cousin, Tommy Atkins. Bobby served on the front line of what is often characterized as 'the war against crime.' He may rarely have fought in pitched battles and almost never with lethal weapons, but his life could be hard and dangerous. Up until the last third of the twentieth century he usually patrolled on foot, in all weathers by day and, more often, by night. The drudgery of the foot patrol fostered that other nickname, 'Mr Plod'; something that may, or may not, have passed Enid Blyton by when she chose the name for the policeman of Noddy's Toytown. The period covered by The Great British Bobby saw massive economic, social and political change in Britain. The policing institution has shifted significantly in tandem, from having its primary relationship directly with the decentralized, local community, to becoming an instrument of the central state with, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, targets set and regulated centrally for the good of what politicians and policing professionals consider as the national community. Criminological expert Clive Emsley is ideally placed to tell the story of this remarkable and iconic institution; his book is nothing less than a social history of Britain over the last 180 years. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-09-02T09:25:43Z 2019-08-06T08:33:24Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21710 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21710 2010-09-02T09:25:43Z The theory and practice of justice: laws, norms, deviance Clive Emsley ce3232 Rene Levy Xavier Rousseaux 2010-09-02T09:14:35Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21727 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21727 2010-09-02T09:14:35Z La historia social evolutiva de la criminalidad y de los sistemas de justicia penal El autor explica cómo se han llevado a cabo las investigaciones sobre la historia del crimen desde la década de 1960, haciendo énfasis en los nuevos enfoques sobre la violencia y los instrumentos que utiliza el Estado para ejercer el poder, como el sistema judicial.

The author explains how they have conducted research on the history of crime since the 1960s, with emphasis on new approaches to violence and the instruments used by the State to exercise power, as the judicial system. In addition, Emsley makes an excellent analysis of the works published in Western Europe and especially in Britain.

En primer lugar, esquematizar lo que considero un cambio en el enfoque del historiador social de la criminalidad, desarrollado a través de los últimos 40 a?os. Este enfoque se ha desplazado desde un énfasis en las clases sociales y el desarrollo económico, que llevó a una concentración en los delitos sobre la propiedad, hacia un nuevo énfasis en la violencia. En segundo lugar, propongo debatir de qué manera el interés por el crimen ha hecho que los historiadores sociales de la criminalidad fijen nuevamente su atención en el Estado, y particularmente analicen minuciosamente aquellos instrumentos estatales que constituyen el sistema de justicia penal, a saber, los cuerpos policiales, los tribunales y las prisiones. Finalmente, quiero destacar, a lo largo de este trabajo, algunas de las conclusiones más relevantes a que he llegado, así como las nuevas hipótesis que deberán ser evaluadas de forma crítica en futuras investigaciones.

Este documento se basa principalmente en trabajos publicados en Europa Occidental, especialmente en la experiencia inglesa, ya que fue allí donde obtuve la mayor parte de mi experiencia personal.

This presentation has three main objectives. First, outline what I consider a change in the social historian's approach to crime, developed over the past 40 years. This approach has shifted from an emphasis on social class and economic development, which led to a focus on property crimes, toward a new emphasis on violence. Secondly, I propose to discuss how the interest in crime has made social historians of crime again fixed their attention on the state, particularly those instruments thoroughly analyze state that constitute the criminal justice system, namely police, courts and prisons. Finally, I would stress, in the course of this work, some of the most important conclusions which I have reached and new ideas which should be evaluated critically in future research.

This document is based primarily on papers published in Western Europe, especially the English experience, and it was where I got most of my personal experience.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-23T08:22:12Z 2019-08-06T08:33:25Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21713 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21713 2010-06-23T08:22:12Z La historia de la delincuencia y la justicia penal (1750-1914): una relexion sobre los estudios actuales Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-23T08:19:15Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21694 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21694 2010-06-23T08:19:15Z Security work: citizens, employees and officials working on crime - a response [About the book] Directeur de recherche au CNRS, co-fondateur de Déviance et Société et du Groupe européen recherches sur les normativités (GERN), Philippe Robert a été l'artisan principal du renouveau de la sociologie criminelle en France depuis les années 1960. A l'occasion de son éméritat s'est tenu un colloque où, dans une perspective européenne et internationale, sociologues, anthropologues, historiens, politologues et juristes ont abordé avec lui des mutations sociales décisives de la deuxième partie du Xxe siècle. Sous six aspects, ces bouleversements ont eu de profondes répercussions sur la délinquance et sur les théories qui tentent d'en rendre compte : l'émergence d'une consommation de masse associée à une prédation de masse ; les rapports entre précarité et violence ; la montée de la société du risque et la place qu'y tient la peur du crime ; les nouvelles relations entre public et privé dans le domaine de la sécurité ; la place de la répression pénale dans l'ordre social ; les relations entre juges, médias et élites sociales. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-18T08:19:32Z 2019-08-06T08:33:26Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21716 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21716 2010-06-18T08:19:32Z Law reform and penal reform in England in the age of the French Revolution [About the book] Révolutions et justice pénale, modèles fran?ais et traditions nationales forment donc les quatre axes de réflexion de cet ouvrage. A partir de l'économie générale des systèmes répressifs, les auteurs examinent successivement la formation de la législation, l'organisation de la justice, les filières pénales et l'administration des peines dans l'espace fran?ais comme dans les régions conquises. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T14:51:23Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21693 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21693 2010-06-17T14:51:23Z Behind the wooden walls: the British defence against invasion, 1803-1805 Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T14:28:35Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21695 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21695 2010-06-17T14:28:35Z From ex-con to expert: the police detective in 19th-century France About the book:
While the history of the uniformed police has prompted considerable research, the historical study of police detectives has been largely neglected; confined for the most part to a chapter or a brief mention in books dealing with the development of the police in general.
The collection redresses this imbalance. Investigating themes central to the history of detection, such as the inchoate distinction between criminals and detectives, the professionalisation of detective work and the establishment of colonial police forces, the book provides a the first detailed examination of detectives as an occupational group, with a distinct occupational culture. Essays discuss the complex relationship between official and private law enforcers and examine the ways in which the FBI in the U.S.A. and the Gestapo in Nazi Germany operated as instruments of state power. The dynamic interaction between the fictional and the real life image of the detective is also explored.
Expanding on themes and approaches introduced in recent academic research of police history, the comparative studies included in this collection provide new insights into the development of both plain-clothes policing and law enforcement in general, illuminating the historical importance of bureaucratic and administrative changes that occurred within the state system.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-17T14:16:27Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21697 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21697 2010-06-17T14:16:27Z The changes in policing and penal policy in nineteenth-century Europe About the book:
This book is a major contribution to the comparative histories of crime and criminal justice, focusing on the legal regimes of the British empire during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Its overarching theme is the transformation and convergence of criminal justice systems during a period that saw a broad shift from legal pluralism to the hegemony of state law in the European world and beyond.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-17T13:54:05Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21700 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21700 2010-06-17T13:54:05Z The Second World War and the police in England and Wales Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T13:41:51Z 2019-08-06T08:33:25Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21712 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21712 2010-06-17T13:41:51Z The Pop-Gun Plot, 1794 Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T13:32:13Z 2019-08-06T08:33:24Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21707 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21707 2010-06-17T13:32:13Z La gendarmerie et l'état Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T12:01:27Z 2019-08-06T08:33:25Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21714 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21714 2010-06-17T12:01:27Z P.C. Dixon and Commissaire Maigret: some myths and realities in the development of English and continental police [Book summary] Employing the skills of both the historian and the criminologist, these essays range across rural and urban worlds, presenting both highly localized case studies and the broad sweep of a synoptic survey, approaching the genre from both a historical and a cultural perspective. This book raises issues of central concern not only to scholars and academics, but to everyone concerned with crime, justice and order within the complexities of modern society. It does honour to a leading figure in the modern renaissance of Welsh history but also outlines, in its own right, issues that illuminate the tension between individual rights and freedoms, on the one hand, and the imperatives of the ordered, policed society on the other. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T11:50:47Z 2019-08-06T08:33:26Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21720 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21720 2010-06-17T11:50:47Z The nation-state, the law and the peasant in nineteenth-century Europe [Book summary] L'état n'a peut-être jamais fait l'objet d'autant de recherches et de réflexions que depuis qu'il para?t, en Europe, menacé dans son existence et contesté dans ses fonctions. Ce débat n'épargne par les fonctions traditionnellement considérées comme fondatrices de l'état telle que la justice pénale. Cette évolution remet en cause l'illusion de permanence que les institutions pénales tendent à secréter et invite par là-même à s'interroger sur leur passé. Telle est la problématique abordée par le séminaire "Les états et le pénal: acculturation juridique et intégration nationale", qui s'est tenu de 1992 à 1994 aux FUSL à Bruxelles. Le plan du présent ouvrage, issu des travaux de ce séminaire, reflète les deux idées directrices qui ont guidé l'entreprise:
- Dégager la question des rapports entre état, justice pénale et société de l'emprise des points de vue nationaux.
- étudier les vecteurs de l'acculturation dans leur développement et leur mise en oeuvre à travers les débats, les stratégies des acteurs sociaux et les pratiques.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-17T11:17:47Z 2019-08-06T08:33:28Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21733 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21733 2010-06-17T11:17:47Z A typology of nineteenth-century police Taking as its starting points the Bobby in Victorian England and some of the general conclusions of David H. Bayley's comparative work, this essay suggests that three basic types of police developed in nineteenth-century Europe. Focussing primarily on England, France, Italy and Prussia it argues that, in terms of accountability, control and form, state civilian, state military, and civilian municipal police can be delineated as Weberian ideal types. Individual states did not necessarily develop all three types ; but everywhere governments sought to learn and/or borrow from the police system and pratice of their neighbours, central governments were generality in negotiation with local government over policing matters, and were otherwise constrained by traditions and finance. The essay concludes by posing some very general questions for future work regarding police autonomy and police violence. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T10:14:06Z 2019-08-06T08:33:25Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21711 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21711 2010-06-17T10:14:06Z The best way to keep the peace in a country : Napoleon's gendarmes and their legacy This chapter explores two principal questions with reference to the gendarmeries. First, how the system was developed during the Napoleonic régime as a military-civil force for the maintenance of order and for the enforcement of conscription legislation; and second, what made gendarmeries attractive to the rulers of so many European states during the nineteenth century. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-17T09:49:29Z 2019-08-06T08:33:24Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21709 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21709 2010-06-17T09:49:29Z Street, beat and respectability : the culture and self-image of the Victorian and Edwardian policeman ... This chapter will explore aspects of the self-image of the late Victorian and Edwardian policeman. ... Primarliy, we are concerned with the relationship between self-discipline, self-help, and self-respect, as measured against those who had fallen by the wayside: the unrespectable and, in Booth's late Victorian terminology, "the vicious and semicrimanal poor". Clive Emsley ce3232 Mark Clapson 2010-06-17T09:02:10Z 2019-08-06T08:33:26Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21719 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21719 2010-06-17T09:02:10Z Les gendarmes et les paysans: vers une histoire institutionnelle et sociale comparée Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-16T15:47:44Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21726 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21726 2010-06-16T15:47:44Z The archives of the English and Welsh police forces: a survey Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-16T15:10:14Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21702 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21702 2010-06-16T15:10:14Z Control and legitimacy: the police in comparative perspective since circa 1800 This essay focuses on the agency that, more than any other, can be and has been perceived as a controller and supervisor within modern society - professional, bureaucratic police. Yet it is important to remember that discipline and supervisory strategies were employed within different communities long before the introduction of professional police. Many of these have virtually disappeared, but others have persisted and evolved. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-16T14:46:53Z 2019-08-06T08:33:28Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21734 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21734 2010-06-16T14:46:53Z The origins of the modern police Discusses the origins and issues of early policing in Continental Europe. Information on the constable of England in medieval times; meaning of the word police; establishment of the lieutenant general de police de Paris by Louis XIV; information on the book `On Crimes and Punishment,' by Cesare Baccaria; factors that influenced the development of police institutions; significance of policing across Europe; hostility between the police and the working class. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T14:57:55Z 2019-08-06T08:33:24Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21705 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21705 2010-06-15T14:57:55Z The Police Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T14:56:04Z 2019-08-06T08:33:24Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21704 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21704 2010-06-15T14:56:04Z The birth and development of the police Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T14:54:19Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21703 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21703 2010-06-15T14:54:19Z Policemen on a dark continent in an age of extremes Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T14:51:54Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21699 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21699 2010-06-15T14:51:54Z Crime, police and penal policy About the book: This Companion brings togerther thirty-two new essays by leading historians to provide a reassessment of British history in the early twentieth century. The contributors present lucid introductions to literature and debates on major aspects of the political, social and economic history of Britain in a period that included the First World War, political upheval and the foundation of the welfare state, economic hardship, women's suffrage and dramati social changes throughout British society.

The volume examines the international role of Britain as both a would power and a European power, discussing issues of relative economic decline and the effect of the first World War on Britain's economic status. The book also addresses controversial issues over the social impact of the First World War, especially on the position of women in work and society. There is als substantial coverage of changes in Wales, Scotland and Ireland as well as in England.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-15T14:50:13Z 2019-08-06T08:33:24Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21706 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21706 2010-06-15T14:50:13Z The English police: A unique development? Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T13:21:49Z 2019-08-06T08:33:26Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21722 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21722 2010-06-15T13:21:49Z Political police and the European nation-state in the nineteenth century About the book: The role of the police has, from its beginnings, been ambiguous, even janus-faced. This volume focuses on one of its controversial aspects by showing how the police have been utilized in the past by regimes in Europe, the USA and the British Empire to check political dissent and social unrest. Ideologies such as anti-Communism emerge as significant influences in both democracies and dictatorships. And by shedding new light on policing continuities in twentieth-century Germany and Italy, as well as Interpol, this volume questions the compatibility of democratic government and political policing. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T13:17:48Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21725 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21725 2010-06-15T13:17:48Z Albion's fatal attractions: Reflections upon the history of crime in England About the book: When is a crime a crime--or an act condoned by a significant portion of society? When is a criminal a criminal--or a revolutionary or a national hero? As the chapters in this collection make clear, what constitutes criminal activity varies, to a degree, among different societies and at different moments in a society's history. In this wide-ranging work, major historians of criminology and penology examine aspects of crime and criminal justice from medieval Western Europe to modern day Canada.

In addition to examining crime, the judicial system, and punishment in various societies, the chapters look at the evolution of police systems as societies urbanize and undergo population changes. Together these chapters look at many key questions concerning the modern study of criminal behavior. As such, the volume will be of great interest to researchers and scholars of the history of crime.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-15T13:09:37Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21691 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21691 2010-06-15T13:09:37Z Crime Histories and Histories of Crime: Studies in the Historiography of Crime and Criminal Justice in Modern History When is a crime a crime--or an act condoned by a significant portion of society? When is a criminal a criminal--or a revolutionary or a national hero? As the chapters in this collection make clear, what constitutes criminal activity varies, to a degree, among different societies and at different moments in a society's history. In this wide-ranging work, major historians of criminology and penology examine aspects of crime and criminal justice from medieval Western Europe to modern day Canada.

In addition to examining crime, the judicial system, and punishment in various societies, the chapters look at the evolution of police systems as societies urbanize and undergo population changes. Together these chapters look at many key questions concerning the modern study of criminal behavior. As such, the volume will be of great interest to researchers and scholars of the history of crime.
2010-06-15T13:07:16Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21690 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21690 2010-06-15T13:07:16Z Patterns of Provocation: Police and Public Disorder Over the past thirty years social scientists and particularly social historians have stressed the need to take popular protest seriously. The corollary of this, the need to take the policing of protest seriously, seems to have been less well acknowledged. The aim of this volume is to redress this situation by probing, in depth, a limited number of incidents of public disorder and focusing particularly on the role of the police. In doing so, this collection will draw out general patterns of police provocation and public responses and suggest general hypotheses. The incidents explored range across Europe and the United States, involve different kinds of political regime, and are drawn from both the interwar and the postwar years. They pose important questions about the effects of riot training and specialist equipment for the police, about the reality and roles of "agitators" and of "rotten apples" amongst the police, and about the role of the media and the courts in fostering certain kinds of undesirable and counterproductive police behavior. 2010-06-15T13:02:04Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21688 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21688 2010-06-15T13:02:04Z Comparative Histories of Crime This book aims to both reflect and take forward current thinking on comparative and cross-national and cross-cultural aspects of the history of crime. Its content is wide-ranging: some chapters discuss the value of comparative approaches in aiding understanding of comparative history, and providing research directions for the future; others address substantive issues and topics that will be of interest to those with interests in both history and criminology. Overall the book aims to broaden the focus of the historical context of crime and policing to take fuller account of cross-national and cross-cultural factors. 2010-06-15T13:00:32Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21686 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21686 2010-06-15T13:00:32Z The Persistent Prison: Problems, Images and Alternatives In the United Kingdom, as elsewhere, prison is commonly seen as the best means of dealing with offenders. There is little debate about alternatives to prison and little awareness of what kinds of individuals are actually incarcerated and for what offences; nor are their experiences of prison generally understood. The essays in this book range widely over these issues. The main focus is the British situation, but there is also discussion of alternatives – chain gangs, electronic tagging – experimented with elsewhere.

This book was produced in association with the International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research at the Open University and with the support the Restorative Justice Programme of the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation.
2010-06-15T12:58:42Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21687 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21687 2010-06-15T12:58:42Z Social Control in Europe 1800-2000 This two-volume collection of essays provides a comprehensive examination of the idea of social control in the history of Europe. The uniqueness of these volumes lies in two main areas. First, the contributors compare methods of social control on many levels, from police to shaming, church to guilds. Second, they look at these formal and informal institutions as two-way processes. Unlike many studies of social control in the past, the scholars here examine how individuals and groups that are being controlled necessarily participate in and shape the manner in which they are regulated. Hardly passive victims of discipline and control, these folks instead claimed agency in that process, accepting and resisting—and thus molding—the controls under which they functioned.

In both volumes, an introduction outlines the origins and the continuing value of the concept of social control. The introductions are followed by two substantive sections. The essays in part one of volume 2 explore the various means by which communities—generally working-class communities—in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe were subjected to forms of discipline in the workplace, by the church, and by philanthropic housing organizations. It notes also how the communities themselves generated their own forms of internal control. Part two of volume 2 focuses on various policing institutions, exploring in particular the question of how liberal and totalitarian regimes differed in their styles of control, repression, and surveillance.
2010-06-15T12:54:04Z 2019-08-06T08:33:21Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21682 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21682 2010-06-15T12:54:04Z Britain and the French Revolution Clive Emsley provides a concise yet wide-ranging introduction to the impact of the French Revolution on Britain and how its effects have been assessed by historians. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T12:52:48Z 2019-08-06T08:33:21Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21681 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21681 2010-06-15T12:52:48Z Napoleon: Conquest, Reform and Reorganisation Probably no other single individual has had such a profound impact on the development of modern France and on that of nineteenth century Europe as Napoleon. Clive Emsley brings the subject up-to-date historiographically and provides an accessible introduction to the post revolutionary period in European history of 1799 to 1815. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T12:51:11Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21684 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21684 2010-06-15T12:51:11Z The English Police: A Political and Social History Today in England the police are almost permanently under the spotlight, with investigations into complaints against different forces and inquiries into their activities. This work studies police history and the development of the institution and the job. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T12:49:14Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21689 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21689 2010-06-15T12:49:14Z Total War and Historical Change: Europe 1914-1955 *What do we mean by social and cultural change?

*What is the nature of total war?

*How do wars come to happen?

*What are the consequences of war?

In exploring these four key themes, this collection provides a major resource for the study of twentieth century European history and exemplifies different historical methods and approaches. The authors are drawn from a range of disciplines including those of economics, literature and the arts as well as military, social and political history, and together they raise some of the most significant problems and debates in the study of history. The essays range from standard seminal works by Stanley Hoffmann, Arno J. Mayer and Charles Maier to more recent contributions by Richard Bessell, Mark Harrison and Hew Strachan.
2010-06-15T12:47:19Z 2019-08-06T08:33:22Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21683 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21683 2010-06-15T12:47:19Z Gendarmes and the State in Nineteenth-Century Europe The history of police and policing have been the subject of much interest and research in recent years, but this book provides the first serious academic exploration of the origins and development of the role of soldier-policemen: the gendarmeries of nineteenth-century Europe.

The author presents a detailed account of the French Gendarmeries from the old regime up to the First World War, and looks at the reasons for how and why this model came to be exported across continental Europe in the wake of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic armies. In particular their role is examined within the differing national contexts of Italy, Germany and the Habsburg Empire.

The gendarmeries, it is argued, played a significant role in establishing the state, particularly in rural areas. As the physical manifestation of the state, gendarmes carried the state's law and a promise of protection, whilst at the same time ensuring in turn that the state received its annual levies of conscripts and taxes

This account fully explores how the organisation and style of nineteenth-century soldier-policing in France developed in such a way that it brought the idea of the state and the state's law to much of twentieth-century continental Europe.
Clive Emsley ce3232
2010-06-15T11:49:04Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21732 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21732 2010-06-15T11:49:04Z The Habsburg gendarmerie: a research agenda Clive Emsley ce3232 Sabine Phillips 2010-06-15T11:34:29Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21731 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21731 2010-06-15T11:34:29Z The Policeman as worker: a comparative survey c. 1800-1940 In the exciting new social history of the 1960s the concept of class struggle tended to underpin much of the work on the working class in general, and on various labour groups in particular. Historians sought to find faces in crowds and to rescue others from “the enormous condescension of posterity”. The police, however, when they appeared in this history, were usually as nameless and faceless as the crowds had been previously. They were also commonly portrayed as oppressors, and even in the more perceptive and ground-breaking attempts to explore the police themselves, they were seen through the refracted lens of their working-class critics as “blue locusts” and as a bourgeois instrument for controlling a new society. Parallel research conducted at roughly the same time by sociologists, social psychologists and others developed theoretical perspectives based on two assumptions: first, that certain kinds of authoritarian personality were attracted to police careers, and second, that policing roles had predictable effects on the behaviour and personality of policemen. Subsequent research has suggested these assumptions to be largely unfounded, yet in this respect also, historical explorations of policemen as workers remain few. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T11:03:54Z 2019-08-06T08:33:27Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21730 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21730 2010-06-15T11:03:54Z Police, maintien de l'ordre et espaces urbains: une lecture anglaise [1st paragraph] Le sens du mot ? police ? a beaucoup changé depuis la fin du XVIIe siècle; à l’époque, il désignait en général la gestion d’un territoire, le plus souvent urbain d’ailleurs, en accord avec son origine grecque de polis/politeia, alors que de nos jours, il fait d’abord référence à une institution bureaucratique particulière, la police, the police, die Polizei, la polizia, etc. L’accent n’est plus mis sur une vaste gamme de services publics, supervision des marchés, nettoyage et éclairage des rues et autres, mais sur une tache étroitement spécifique, le maintien de l’ordre social et la prévention et la détection du crime. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-15T09:23:34Z 2019-08-06T08:33:23Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21696 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21696 2010-06-15T09:23:34Z Recidivists and recidivism: some broad conclusions from the English experience [About the book] Reoffending is the bugbear of the modern justice system. This comparative history of punishment in Europe examines how reoffending and repeat offenders have been theorized and dealt with in practice from the Middle Ages until the present day, and in doing so, offers some sort of answer to the failure of penal institutions to correct. Clive Emsley ce3232 2010-06-11T10:15:21Z 2019-08-06T08:33:31Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21761 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/21761 2010-06-11T10:15:21Z A legacy of conflict? The ‘brutalised veteran’ and violence in Europe after the Great War The idea of the brutalised veteran provided a rational explanation for criminal violence in the inter-war period as society recovered from the war and as the stigmatisation of violence by liberal societies recommenced across Europe. This essay, based on a detailed study of press reporting in England, France and Germany puts some flesh on the assumptions about violence in the immediate aftermath of the war comparing and contrasting incidents and experiences in the three countries. Clive Emsley ce3232 2008-04-30Z 2020-12-16T16:43:00Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/10655 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/10655 2008-04-30Z Violent crime in England in 1919: post-war anxieties and press narratives In the immediate aftermath of the First World War a variety of commentators in England expressed concern that men returning from the war had become so brutalized and inured to violence that their behaviour would continue to be violent at home. But, while the stage was set for a ‘moral panic’ with the brutalized veteran as the new folk devil, no such panic materialized. This essay makes a detailed study of two contrasting newspapers to assess how violent crime was assessed and interpreted after the war. It notes an increase in the use of the concept of the ‘unwritten law’ (the traditional ‘right’ claimed by many men to chastise a disrespectful wife or a man that despoiled or dishonoured a wife) in the courts and the press, probably as an element in re-establishing pre-war gender roles. It also describes how the idea of shell-shock was deployed as a defence in criminal cases, something that probably contributed to a popular recognition that men might suffer mental breakdowns as easily as women. In conclusion, it suggests some of the factors that may have inhibited the press in identifying the violent veteran as a new folk devil. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-10-10Z 2019-08-06T08:28:13Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/9797 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/9797 2007-10-10Z Community Policing/Policing and Communities: Some Historical Perspectives The concept of community policing was articulated towards the end of the twentieth century, but the ideas and practices that are brought together within the concept have run through the history of policing. Focussing primarily on the Englsih experience, but drawing comparisons and contrasts with continental Europe, this essay explores some of these ideas and practices. In so doing it identifies myths still prevalent in the history of English policing and stresses that the articulation of the concept was the product of a particular political and social moment. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-10-01Z 2019-08-06T08:27:46Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/9219 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/9219 2007-10-01Z Entrepreneurs prives, fonctionnaires et juristes: Les transformations de la procedure judiciaire dans l'Angleterre du XIXe siecle This essay traces the changing manner by which criminal cases were brought to court in the English legal system from the end of the eighteenth to the middle of the nineteenth century. It discusses the role of victims, magistrates, the different kinds of police officer and the role of grand juries in these procedures, drawing attention in passing to the contrasts with practices on continental Europe. It discusses the growing importance of police officers in the procedure. It concludes by noting the growing importance of lawyers in the courts and the problems for 'truth' and 'justice' that developed in the context of the adversarial system. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-07-06Z 2020-12-22T10:44:44Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7700 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7700 2007-07-06Z El ejercito, la policia y el mantenimiento del orden publico en Inglaterra (c.1750-1950) There is an assumption that the society of mainland Britain, and particularly England proper, was essentially non-violent during the nineteenth century and at least up until the end of the Second World War. Part of the assumption focuses on the development of an unarmed, civilian police institution that took responsibility for dealing with public order and obviated the need for summoning the military. There were no nrevolutions, civil wars, and no pronunciamentos in England during this period, though there remains doubt about the extent to which this was the result of accident or good sense on the part of the people and the government. The question of what constitutes a violent society and the extent to which recurrent public and political violence is the result of contingency or design are central here; and they are of continuing fascination for historians and social and political scientists. Thjis essay does not address these questions directly, rather it aims to present a brief chronological narrative of the related and equally important issue of the shifting public order roles of the military and the police in England. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-06-04Z 2019-08-06T08:27:07Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7865 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7865 2007-06-04Z Beware of the Leopard? Police archives in Great Britain About the book: The 20 essays in this volume resulted from an important international conference held in 2003 at the Liverpool University Centre for Archive Studies in the United Kingdom. Topics addressed include use of records as a tool of government; destruction of records as a political act; effects of corruption or ideology on the record; secrecy and accountability; and the nature and use of records resulting from repressive policies. Chris Williams caw322 Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-22Z 2019-08-06T08:27:04Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7776 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7776 2007-05-22Z Historical perspectives on crime This chapter highlights some of the issues raised by historical research into crime with respect to long-term trends, methodology, and various kinds of data. In so doing it seeks also to underline the contribution that a historical perspective can provide for an understanding of contemporary crime and criminal justice. The key topics explored are the theoretical perspectives used for the history of crime, the concept of a broad, long-term shift in the pattern of crime from violence to theft; the value of statistics; the role of human agency. Most of the discussion centres on the English experience; comparisons with other countries are made where this appears either central or simply helpful. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-16Z 2019-08-06T08:26:57Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7658 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7658 2007-05-16Z Hard Men: Violence in England since 1750 This book surveys the changing patterns of inter-personal violence in England since the mid-eighteenth century. Starting from the current popular assumption that Englsih society has become more violent since the end of the twentieth century it explores a range of sites - public and domestic - where violence has occurred. It argues that the understanding of violence in England over this period was intimately connected with the understnading of Englishness. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-16Z 2019-08-06T08:26:57Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7661 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7661 2007-05-16Z Sergeant Goddard: the story of a rotten apple or a diseased orchard? This chapter explores police corruption in inter-war London looking specifically at the case of Sergeant George Goddard. It suggests that corruption was not, as most police historians have argued, a problem of the occasional rotten apple but was, in many instances systemic, and that this was particularly the case in parts of central London in the period after the First World War. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-16Z 2019-08-06T08:26:59Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7697 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7697 2007-05-16Z Police Detectives in History, 1750-1950 This is the first academic collection to explore the history of detective police. Ranging from Europe to the USA and Australasia, it investigates themes central to the history of detection, such as the inchoate distinction between criminals and detectives, the professionalisation of detective work and the establishment of colonial police forces. It discusses detectives as an an occupational group with a distinct occupational culture, and examines the dynamic interaction between the fictional and the real life detective. Clive Emsley ce3232 Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-16Z 2019-08-06T08:26:59Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7698 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7698 2007-05-16Z Crime, police and penal policy: European experiences 1750-1940 The book addresses the key changes in the understanding of crime and criminals in Europe, and the responses to these in the form of policing and penal policy from the Enlightenment to the Second World War. It discusses the relevance of the broad theoretical perspectives commonly deployed to explore these issues. Throughout it emphasises the way in which different states sought to learn from the practice of others, reshaping policies and practice to suit their own context. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-16Z 2019-08-06T08:26:59Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7699 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7699 2007-05-16Z Filling in, adding up, moving on; Criminal Justice History in contemporary Britain This is a bibliographical essay discussing the developments in the history of criminal justice history since the early 1990s. It describes how the shift from the 'social' history of the 1960s and 1970s, in which the current interest in the history of crime was developed, to 'cultural' and gender perspectives has influenced research. It notes current areas of interest and points to significant lacunae. Clive Emsley ce3232 2007-05-16Z 2019-08-06T08:27:00Z http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7702 This item is in the repository with the URL: http://www.hksacx.icu/id/eprint/7702 2007-05-16Z Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900. 3rd edition This is the third edtion of this book, first published in 1987. It draws on recent research to assess the changes in the understanding of crime, policing, the courts and penal sanctions in England as the country industrialised and urbanised during the the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It challenges the view that crime can be attributed to the behaviour of a criminal class and that the changes in the criminal justice system resulted from the vision of far-sighted reformers. The third edtion reflects recent shifts away from the focus on class towards an interest in gender, and away from the focus on property crime to inter-personal violence. Clive Emsley ce3232
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